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Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2007 Oct;10(5):436-41. Epub 2007 Sep 27.

Multiple mechanisms modulate brassinosteroid signaling.

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  • 1Department of Plant Biology, Carnegie Institution, 260 Panama Street, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.


Brassinosteroids are essential hormones for plant growth and development. Genetic studies have identified key components of the BR signaling pathway, including the cell-surface receptor kinases that perceive BR, an intracellular kinase and a phosphatase, and nuclear transcription factors. Subsequent biochemical studies have revealed many details about signaling events from BR perception at the cell surface to gene expression in the nucleus. Recent studies have identified the 14-3-3 proteins as BR signaling components and elucidated multiple mechanisms by which phosphorylation modulates the BR transcription factors. In addition, BRI1 signaling from the endosomes and BR-independent functions of BAK1 have been observed. However, a major gap still exists in the current BR signaling pathway between the receptor complex and downstream signaling events.

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