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Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Oct;48(10):4818-28.

Effects of Spectral Characteristics of Ganzfeld Stimuli on the Photopic Negative Response (PhNR) of the ERG.

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  • 1University of Houston, College of Optometry, Houston, Texas 77204-2020, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To determine flash and background colors that best isolate the photopic negative response (PhNR) and maximize its amplitude in the primate ERG.

METHODS:

Photopic full-field flash ERGs were recorded from anesthetized macaque monkeys before and after pharmacologic blockade of Na(+)-dependent spiking activity with tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 to 2 muM, n = 3), blockade of ionotropic glutamatergic transmission with cis-2,3 piperidine dicarboxylic acid (PDA, 3.3-3.8 mM, n = 3) or laser-induced monocular experimental glaucoma (n = 6), and from six normal human subjects. Photopically matched colored flashes of increasing stimulus strengths were presented on scotopically matched blue, white, or yellow backgrounds of 100 scot cd/m(2) using an LED-based stimulator.

RESULTS:

PhNRs that could be eliminated by TTX or severe experimental glaucoma were present in responses to brief (<5 ms) and long-duration (200 ms) stimuli of all color combinations. In normal monkey and human eyes for brief low-energy flashes, PhNR amplitudes were highest for red flashes on blue backgrounds and blue flashes on yellow backgrounds. For high-energy flashes, amplitudes were more similar for all color combinations. For long-duration stimuli, the PhNR(on) at light onset in monkeys was larger for red and blue stimuli, regardless of background color, than for spectrally broader flashes, except for stimuli >17.7 cd/m(2) when PhNR(on)s were all of similar amplitude. For red flashes, eliminating the PhNR(on) pharmacologically or by glaucoma removed the slowly recovering negative wave that normally followed the transient b-wave and elevated the whole ON response close to the level of the b-wave peak. However, for white, blue, and green flashes, a lower-amplitude plateau that could be removed by PDA remained.

CONCLUSIONS:

For weak to moderate flash strengths, the best stimulus for maximizing PhNR amplitude is one that primarily stimulates one cone type, on a background with minimal adaptive effect on cones. For stronger stimuli, differences in amplitude are smaller. For long-duration stimuli, red best isolates the PhNR(on) because it minimizes the overlapping lower-level plateau that originates from the activity of second-order hyperpolarizing retinal neurons.

PMID:
17898309
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2100398
Free PMC Article

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