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Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2007 Dec;10(6):447-56. Epub 2007 Sep 24.

Automatic methods for characterization of sexual dimorphism of adult femora: distal femur.

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  • 1University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.


Quantifying sex differences in femoral size and shape has extensive applications in forensics and prosthesis design. By applying strong statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA), certain three-dimensional (3D) morphological variations of adult femora can be quantified over various femoral sizes. Coupling this statistical approach with a novel feature generation and extraction technique, localization of statistically significant (p<0.05) features are automatically defined and measured. Also, predefined anatomical landmarks and surgical axes have been calculated automatically. In all methods, femoral scale is controlled as a possible parameter of shape. By extensively comparing measurements across 92 male and 74 female femora, the dimorphic characteristics of the distal femur are shown. These differences have not been accounted for in many prosthetic systems and consequently these systems have limited sizing accuracy.

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