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Health Educ Res. 2008 Aug;23(4):583-91. Epub 2007 Sep 22.

Moderators and mediators of behaviour change in a lifestyle program for treated hypertensives: a randomized controlled trial (ADAPT).

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  • 1School of Medicine.harmacology, University of Western Australia, Royal Perth Hospital Unit, the Cardiovascular Research Centre and West Australian Institute for Medical Research, Perth, WA 6847, Australia.


We aimed to examine moderators and mediators of behaviour change in a cognitive lifestyle program for drug-treated overweight hypertensives in Perth, Australia. We collected data at baseline, 4 months (post-intervention) and 1-year follow-up in a randomized controlled trial of a program that focused on weight loss, diet, and exercise. Mediation analysis used regression models that estimate indirect effects with bootstrapped confidence limits. Outcomes examined were saturated fat intake (% energy) and physical activity (hours per week). In total, 90/118 individuals randomized to usual care and 102/123 to the program-completed follow-up. Sex was a moderator of response post-intervention for diet and physical activity, with a greater response among women with usual care and among men with the program. Change in self-efficacy was a mediator of dietary change post-intervention [effect size (ES) -0.055, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.125, -0.005] and at follow-up (ES 0.054, 95% CI -0.127, -0.005), and in physical activity post-intervention (ES 0.059, 95% CI 0.003, 0.147). These findings highlight different responses of men and women to the program, and the importance of self-efficacy as a mediator. Mediators for physical activity in the longer term should be investigated in other models, with appropriate cognitive measurements, in future trials.

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