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Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007 Sep-Oct;23(5):376-80.

Use of the levator muscle as a frontalis sling.

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  • 1Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.



To investigate the use of the distal portion of levator aponeurosis as a flap for frontalis suspension in patients with severe congenital ptosis and poor levator function.


Eleven procedures were performed on 8 patients with severe congenital ptosis and poor levator muscle function. Three of the 8 patients had Marcus-Gunn jaw-winking phenomenon. Preoperative evaluation included measurements of the degree of ptosis, levator function, superior rectus action, Bell phenomenon, lagophthalmos, and (if present) synkinetic eyelid movement. Surgery involved fashioning a flap from the distal portion of the levator aponeurosis and anchoring it to the frontalis muscle. Postoperatively, patients were followed for at least 6 months to assess the level of the eyelid in the primary position at rest and when the brow is raised, the degree of eyelid margin excursion on brow elevation, persistence of synkinetic eye movement, presence of complications, lagophthalmos, corneal exposure, and symmetry.


Synkinetic muscle movements were completely abolished. All cases had good primary eyelid position, no corneal complications, and effective frontalis action on eyelid elevation.


The distal levator muscle flap is an effective frontalis suspension material to correct ptosis with poor levator function and to abolish synkinetic eyelid movement without compromising corneal protection.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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