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Nat Rev Genet. 2007 Oct;8(10):791-802.

Renal abnormalities and their developmental origin.

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  • 1INSERM, U636, F-06108 Nice, France.


Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) occur in 1 out of 500 newborns, and constitute approximately 20-30% of all anomalies identified in the prenatal period. CAKUT has a major role in renal failure, and there is increasing evidence that certain abnormalities predispose to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Moreover, defects in nephron formation can predispose to Wilms tumour, the most frequent solid tumour in children. To understand the basis of human renal diseases, it is essential to consider how the kidney develops.

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