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Psychol Addict Behav. 2007 Sep;21(3):287-96.

Developmental trajectory classes in substance use disorder etiology.

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  • 1University of Pittsburgh, School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.


Three trajectory classes culminating in substance use disorder (SUD) were discerned in a longitudinal study of boys from ages 10-12 to 22 years. Neurobehavior disinhibition, parental SUD, socioeconomic status, and affiliation with deviant peers were measured at baseline. Approval of socially nonnormative behavior was measured at ages 10-12, 12-14, 16, and 19 years. Two high-risk trajectories, indicated by increasing approval of antisociality and progressive social maladjustment during adolescence (SUD rate = 72.7%) and stable high level of disturbance (SUD rate = 85%), were identified. Individual characteristics (neurobehavior disinhibition) in conjunction with contextual factors (low socioeconomic status, parental SUD, affiliation with deviant friends) promote approval of antisociality during adolescence and a high rate of SUD by young adulthood.

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