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Science. 1992 Mar 20;255(5051):1523-31.

Physics of the granular state.


Granular materials display a variety of behaviors that are in many ways different from those of other substances. They cannot be easily classified as either solids or liquids. This has prompted the generation of analogies between the physics found in a simple sandpile and that found in complicated microscopic systems, such as flux motion in superconductors or spin glasses. Recently, the unusual behavior of granular systems has led to a number of new theories and to a new era of experimentation on granular systems.

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