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J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2007 Sep;9(3):186-92.

The evolution of botulinum neurotoxin type A for cosmetic applications.

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  • 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.


Very few pharmaceutical preparations share an evolutionary history as remarkable as that of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). The exotoxin of the organism Clostridium botulinum, once feared as a terrible poison, has been reborn as a highly regarded and widely used therapeutic and aesthetic agent. In less than two decades since the report of the success of BoNT type A (BoNTA) in reducing glabellar lines, injection of this product has become the most common non-surgical cosmetic procedure performed in the USA and worldwide. In addition to temporarily eliminating rhytids by muscle weakening, other dermatologic applications of BoNTA include correcting facial asymmetries and treating hyperhidrosis. Although BOTOX is the most clinically substantiated and published of the BoNTA preparations, other BoNTA products, as well as a BoNT type B product, are available in some parts of the world, and others are in development.

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