Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 Dec 1;176(11):1129-37. Epub 2007 Aug 29.

4G/5G plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 polymorphisms and haplotypes are associated with pneumonia.

Author information

  • 1CRISMA Laboratory (Clinical Research, Investigation, and Systems Modeling of Acute Illness), Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.



Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 inhibits urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator, required for host response to infection. Whether variation within the PAI-1 gene is associated with increased susceptibility to infection is unknown.


To ascertain the role of the 4G/5G polymorphism and other genetic variants within the PAI-1 gene. We hypothesized that variants associated with increased PAI-1 expression would be associated with an increased occurrence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).


Longitudinal analysis (>12 yr) of the Health, Aging, and Body Composition cohort, aged 65-74 years at start of analysis.


We genotyped the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism and six additional single nucleotide polymorphisms. Of the 3,075 subjects, 272 (8.8%) had at least one hospitalization for CAP. Among whites, variants at the PAI4G,5G, PAI2846, and PAI7343 sites had higher risk of CAP (P = 0.018, 0.021, and 0.021, respectively). At these sites, variants associated with higher PAI-1 expression were associated with increased CAP susceptibility. Compared with the 5G/5G genotypes at PAI4G,5G site, the 4G/4G and 4G/5G genotypes were associated with a 1.98-fold increased risk of CAP (95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.2; P = 0.006). In whole blood stimulation assay, subjects with a 4G allele had 3.3- and 1.9-fold increased PAI-1 expression (P = 0.043 and 0.034, respectively). In haplotype analysis, the 4G/G/C/A haplotype at the PAI4G,5G, PAI2846, PAI4588, and PAI7343 single nucleotide polymorphisms was associated with higher CAP susceptibility, whereas the 5G/G/C/A haplotype was associated with lower CAP susceptibility. No associations were seen among blacks.


Genotypes associated with increased expression of PAI-1 were associated with increased susceptibility to CAP in elderly whites.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Atypon Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk