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Science. 1963 May 17;140(3568):826-8.

Siphonophores and the Deep Scattering Layer.


Bathyscaphe dives in the San Diego Trough have revealed a close spatial relation between siphonophores and the deep scattering layer as recorded by precision depth recording echo-sounders. Measurements of gas bubbles within the flotation structures of Nanomia bijuga captured in a closing net in an ascended scattering layer indicate that these are very close to the resonant size for 12-kcy/sec sound. Because such organisms are capable of making prolonged vertical migrations, and are widespread geographically, they are very probably the major cause of stratified zones of scattering throughout the oceans of the world.

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