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Clin Pharmacokinet. 2007;46(9):787-802.

The absolute oral bioavailability and population-based pharmacokinetic modelling of a novel dipeptidylpeptidase-IV inhibitor, vildagliptin, in healthy volunteers.

Author information

  • 1Exploratory Development, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. yanling.he@novartis.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:

Vildagliptin is a potent, selective, orally active inhibitor of dipeptidylpeptidase-IV being developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to assess the absolute oral bioavailability of vildagliptin by comparing the systemic exposure after oral and intravenous administration in healthy volunteers.

METHODS:

This was an open-label, randomised, two-period, two-treatment, crossover study in 11 healthy volunteers. Subjects received vildagliptin 50mg orally or 25mg as a 30-minute intravenous infusion on two occasions separated by a 72-hour washout period. Vildagliptin concentrations were determined by a specific assay in urine (lower limit of quantification [LLQ] = 5 ng/mL) and serial plasma samples (LLQ = 2 ng/mL) obtained up to 24 hours after dosing. Noncompartmental analysis and population pharmacokinetic modelling were performed.

RESULTS:

Both noncompartmental analysis and population pharmacokinetic modelling estimated the absolute oral bioavailability of vildagliptin to be 85%. Renal elimination of unchanged vildagliptin accounted for 33% and 21% of the administered dose 24 hours after intravenous and oral administration, respectively. Renal clearance (13 L/h) was approximately one-third of the total systemic clearance (41 L/h). Two peaks were observed in plasma concentrations at 1 and 3 hours after oral administration in nine of 11 subjects. Modelling based on the population approach identified two absorption sites with lag-times of 0.225 and 2.46 hours. Both absorption rate constants were slower than the elimination rate constant, indicating 'flip-flop' kinetics after oral administration. Bodyweight was identified as a factor with an impact on the volume of distribution of the peripheral compartment. Clearance was 24% greater in males (44.6 L/h) than in females (36.1 L/h).

CONCLUSIONS:

Vildagliptin is rapidly and well absorbed with an estimated absolute bioavailability of 85%. Two possible sites of absorption were identified, and the absorption rates were slower than the elimination rate, indicating a flip-flop phenomenon after oral dosing.

PMID:
17713976
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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