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Chem Phys Lipids. 2007 Nov;150(1):89-108. Epub 2007 Jul 3.

Crystallization and phase behavior of 1,3-propanediol esters II. 1,3-propanediol distearate/1,3-propanediol dipalmitate (SS/PP) and 1,3-propanediol distearate/1,3-propanediol dimyristate (SS/MM) binary systems.

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  • 1Alberta Lipid Utilization Program, Department of Agricultural Food and Nutritional Science, 4-10 Agriculture/Forestry Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2P5, Canada.


Polymorphic influences on the phase behavior of two types of binary mixtures of saturated monoacid 1,3-propanediol esters (PADEs), dipalmitate/distearate (PP/SS) and dimyristate/distearate (MM/SS) were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and by solid fat content (SFC), hardness and microscopy measurements. Three stacking modes have been found in the PP/SS binary system. Mixed SS-PP bilayers were detected in all mixtures, SS-SS bilayers in x(PP)=0.0-0.4 mixtures and PP-PP bilayers in x(PP)=0.6-0.1 mixtures. Two different but close beta polymorphs and one beta' polymorph were detected for this system. beta' was only detected in x(PP)=0.5-0.9 mixtures for the mixed bilayers. For the MM/SS binary system, only MM-MM and SS-SS bilayers were detected and both solid phases crystallized in two different beta forms. XRD data evidenced clearly that the MM and SS components were completely immiscible in the solid state. The phase diagrams constructed using DSC data, exhibited a typical eutectic-type phase boundary. The presence of eutectics, the shape of the solidus lines as well as the analysis of the individual enthalpies of melting indicated typical phase separation for both systems. A thermodynamic study based on the Hildebrand equation and using the Bragg-Williams approximation for non-ideality of mixing confirmed the phase separation in the solid phase and suggested that the PP and SS were miscible in the liquid phase and that SS formed an ideal mixing with MM. Avrami analysis of SFC vs. time curves indicated heterogeneous nucleation and spherulitic crystal development from sporadic nuclei, and suggested that the nucleation rate was higher for the mixture at the eutectic composition. The relative hardness was correlated with the enthalpies, the final SFC and the microscopy measurements.

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