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BMC Med Genet. 2007 Aug 16;8:55.

PPARalpha L162V underlies variation in serum triglycerides and subcutaneous fat volume in young males.

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  • 1Research Center for Genetic Medicine, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA. juthurralt@cnmcresearch.org

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Of the five sub-phenotypes defining metabolic syndrome, all are known to have strong genetic components (typically 50-80% of population variation). Studies defining genetic predispositions have typically focused on older populations with metabolic syndrome and/or type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the study of younger populations would mitigate many confounding variables, and allow us to better define genetic predisposition loci for metabolic syndrome.

METHODS:

We studied 610 young adult volunteers (average age 24 yrs) for metabolic syndrome markers, and volumetric MRI of upper arm muscle, bone, and fat pre- and post-unilateral resistance training.

RESULTS:

We found the PPARalpha L162V polymorphism to be a strong determinant of serum triglyceride levels in young White males, where carriers of the V allele showed 78% increase in triglycerides relative to L homozygotes (LL = 116 +/- 11 mg/dL, LV = 208 +/- 30 mg/dL; p = 0.004). Men with the V allele showed lower HDL (LL = 42 +/- 1 mg/dL, LV = 34 +/- 2 mg/dL; p = 0.001), but women did not. Subcutaneous fat volume was higher in males carrying the V allele, however, exercise training increased fat volume of the untrained arm in V carriers, while LL genotypes significantly decreased in fat volume (LL = -1,707 +/- 21 mm3, LV = 17,617 +/- 58 mm3 ; p = 0.002), indicating a systemic effect of the V allele on adiposity after unilateral training. Our study suggests that the primary effect of PPARalpha L162V is on serum triglycerides, with downstream effects on adiposity and response to training.

CONCLUSION:

Our results on association of PPARalpha and triglycerides in males showed a much larger effect of the V allele than previously reported in older and less healthy populations. Specifically, we showed the V allele to increase triglycerides by 78% (p = 0.004), and this single polymorphism accounted for 3.8% of all variation in serum triglycerides in males (p = 0.0037).

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