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Mol Biol Cell. 2007 Oct;18(10):4180-9. Epub 2007 Aug 15.

Protein kinase A and Sch9 cooperatively regulate induction of autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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  • 1Life Sciences Institute, Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.


Autophagy is a highly conserved, degradative process in eukaryotic cells. The rapamycin-sensitive Tor kinase complex 1 (TORC1) has a major role in regulating induction of autophagy; however, the regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we find that the protein kinase A (PKA) and Sch9 signaling pathways regulate autophagy cooperatively in yeast. Autophagy is induced in cells when PKA and Sch9 are simultaneously inactivated. Mutant alleles of these kinases bearing a mutation that confers sensitivity to the ATP-analogue inhibitor C3-1'-naphthyl-methyl PP1 revealed that autophagy was induced independently of effects on Tor kinase. The PKA-Sch9-mediated autophagy depends on the autophagy-related 1 kinase complex, which is also essential for TORC1-regulated autophagy, the transcription factors Msn2/4, and the Rim15 kinase. The present results suggest that autophagy is controlled by the signals from at least three partly separate nutrient-sensing pathways that include PKA, Sch9, and TORC1.

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