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Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007 May;2(3):418-25. Epub 2007 Mar 27.

North East Italian Prospective Hospital Renal Outcome Survey on Acute Kidney Injury (NEiPHROS-AKI): targeting the problem with the RIFLE Criteria.

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  • 1Department of Nephrology and Intensive Care, San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy.


Acute kidney injury (AKI) in the intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with an enhanced mortality. The Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative group has proposed the RIFLE (Risk-Injury-Failure-Loss-ESRD) classification to standardize the approach to AKI. This study was performed to estimate the AKI incidence in ICU patients in northeastern Italy and describe clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with AKI on the basis of their RIFLE class. A prospective multicenter observational study was performed of patients who fulfilled AKI criteria in 19 ICU in northeastern Italy. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression and survival curve analysis. Of 2164 ICU patients who were admitted during the study period, 234 (10.8%; 95% confidence interval 9.5 to 12.1%) developed AKI; 19% were classified as risk (R), 35% as injury (I), and 46% as failure (F). Preexisting kidney disease was present in 36.8%. The most common causes of AKI were prerenal causes (38.9%) and sepsis (25.6%). At diagnosis of AKI, median serum creatinine and urine output were 2.0 mg/dl and 1100 ml/d, respectively. ICU mortality was 49.5% in class F, 29.3% in I, and 20% in R. Independent risk factors for mortality included RIFLE class, sepsis, and need for renal replacement therapy, whereas a postsurgical cause of AKI, exposure to nephrotoxins, higher serum creatinine, and urine output were associated with lower mortality risk. In this study, AKI incidence in the ICU was between 9 and 12%, with 3.3% of ICU patients requiring renal replacement therapy. Sepsis was a significant contributing factor. Overall mortality was between 30 and 42%, and was highest among those in RIFLE class F.

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