Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Dec 15;166(12):1451-60. Epub 2007 Aug 13.

Differential dietary nutrient intake according to hormone replacement therapy use: an underestimated confounding factor in epidemiologic studies?

Author information

  • 1INSERM, ERI 20, EA 4045, and Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.


Observational studies and randomized controlled trials have produced divergent results concerning the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on cardiovascular disease and, to a lesser extent, dementia. Residual confounding (confounding that remains even after adjustment for various socioeconomic and lifestyle factors) is one explanation that has been offered for these divergent results. The authors used data collected between 1990 and 1995 from 6,697 French women aged 61-72 years participating in a prospective cohort study to explore the hypothesis that nutritional intake varies according to HRT use and thus may be a source of residual confounding. After the authors adjusted for health and lifestyle factors, HRT users, compared with never users, had significantly higher intakes of alcohol; omega3 fatty acids; vitamins B6, B12, and D; and phosphorus and a lower intake of starch. These differential nutrient intakes were related to differences in eating habits. In particular, HRT users in the studied sample, compared with nonusers, ate significantly more fish. Most of the dietary differences were seen in both early users and delayers of HRT. To limit residual confounding in observational studies, dietary factors may be important parameters to be taken into account in analyses of HRT use and health outcomes.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk