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Radiother Oncol. 2007 Aug;84(2):185-9. Epub 2007 Aug 10.

Intraoperative real-time planned conformal prostate brachytherapy: post-implantation dosimetric outcome and clinical implications.

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  • 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY10021, USA.



To report the dosimetric outcome of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with I-125 permanent implantation using an intraoperative real-time conformal planning technique.


Five hundred and sixty-two patients with prostate cancer were treated with I-125 permanent interstitial implantation using a transrectal ultrasound-guided approach. Real-time intraoperative treatment planning software that incorporates inverse planning optimization was used. Dose-volume constraints for this inverse-planning system included: prostate V100 >or=95%, maximal urethral dose <or=120%, and average rectal dose <80% of the prescription dose. Day zero computed tomography scans were acquired for post-implantation dosimetric evaluation.


The median V100 and D90 to the prostate target were 96% and 166 Gy, respectively. In 91% of cases a D90 of >or=140 Gy was achieved. In these patients, the V100 and D90 values did not have a significant influence on PSA relapse-free survival outcomes. The median maximum rectal dose and urethral doses were 104 Gy (72% of the prescription dose) and 187 Gy (130% of the prescription dose). The average and maximum rectal doses exceeding 100% of the prescription dose were less than 1% and 10% of patients, respectively. Average and maximum urethral doses exceeding 150% of the prescription dose were noted in 3% and 24% of patients, respectively. Average and maximum urethral doses exceeded 120% of the prescription dose in 21% and 58% of patients, respectively. Among patients where >or=2.5 cm(3) of the rectum was exposed to the prescription dose, the incidence of late grade 2 toxicity rectal toxicity was 9% compared to 4% for smaller volumes of the rectum exposed to similar doses (p=0.003). No dosimetric parameter in these patients with tight dose confines for the urethra influenced acute or late urinary toxicity.


Real-time intraoperative planning was associated with a 90% consistency of achieving the planned intraoperative dose constraints for target coverage and maintaining planned urethral and rectal constraints in a high percentage of implants. Rectal volumes of >or=2.5 cm(3) exposed to the prescription doses were associated with an increased incidence of grade 2 rectal bleeding. Further enhancements in imaging guidance for optimal seed deposition are needed to guarantee optimal dose distribution for all patients. Whether such improvements lead to further reduction in acute and late morbidities associated with therapy requires further study.

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