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Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2007;97(Pt 1):21-9.

The current range of neuromodulatory devices and related technologies.

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  • 1P. S. Kokkalis Hellenic Center for Neurosurgical Research, Athens, Greece.


The pace of technology dictates changes in every aspect of human life. Medical profession is not an exception. The development of sophisticated electronic devices has radically influenced diagnosis and therapy. Today neurosurgical science is revolutionized with numerous implanted and non-implanted devices that modulate and stimulate the nervous system. Physicians, patients and non-technical experts involved in this field need to understand the core mechanisms and the main differences of this technology so that they can use it effectively. It will take years until clinicians reach a "consensus" about the use of these devices, but in the course of action objective information about the current status of the methods and equipment, and the technical, biological, and financial complications that arise in practice will speed up their public approval and acceptance.

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