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J Magn Reson Imaging. 2007 Oct;26(4):823-37.

Neuro MR: principles.

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  • 1Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Abstract

The principles of contrast mechanisms and fast pulse sequences underlying neurological and neuroradiological application of MRI are introduced in this part of a two-part review. In particular, the relaxation time constants T(1), T(2), and T(2) (*) are introduced, along with pulse sequences harnessing their contrast, spin-echo, fast spin echo (FSE), inversion recovery (IR), gradient recalled echo (GRE), and echo planar imaging (EPI). The use of gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast is discussed in both T(1)- and T(2) (*)-weighted sequences. Tradeoffs between speed and image quality are discussed, particularly in the context of long echo train sequences (FSE imaging and EPI). The influence of parallel imaging strategies is also discussed. T(2) (*) sensitivity is discussed as both a source of artifact as well as a contrast mechanism (perfusion imaging with contrast agents, susceptibility weighted imaging [SWI], and blood oxygenation level dependent [BOLD] imaging). Finally, the contrast mechanism of diffusion is introduced, as well as the concept of anisotropy. From these principles, the other part of this two-part review draws upon the pulse sequences and contrast mechanisms to design disease and indication-specific protocols for state-of-the-art clinical use.

(c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID:
17685415
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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