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Urol Clin North Am. 2007 Aug;34(3):383-95.

Advances in percutaneous nephrostolithotomy.

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  • 1Department of Urology, University of California Irvine, UCI Medical Center, Orange, CA 92868, USA.


Percutaneous nephrolithotomy was first performed in 1976. In the past 30 years, many refinements to the procedure have been made and it has become the gold standard for the management of large and complex renal calculi. This article reviews advances made in the field and highlights the nuances of the technique. The large published series are reviewed and their results discussed.

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