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Stroke. 2007 Sep;38(9):2563-8. Epub 2007 Aug 2.

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibition attenuates vascular endothelial growth factor-induced intracerebral hemorrhage.

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  • 1Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, Center for Cerebrovascular Research, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Human brain arteriovenous malformation tissue displays increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, a tissue protease associated with various intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We hypothesized that increased MMP-9 was associated with ICH induced by vascular endothelial growth factor hyperstimulation and that this effect could be attenuated by nonspecific MMP inhibition.

METHODS:

We used a mouse model with adenoviral vector-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor transduction in the brain. The association of MMP-9 expression and the brain tissue hemoglobin levels, an index of ICH, after stereotactic injection of adenoviral vector-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor into caudate putamen was assessed. A dose-response study with adenoviral vector-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor and a time course study at both 24 and 48 hours postinjection were performed. Effects of minocycline, a nonspecific MMP inhibitor, and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an upstream regulator of MMPs, on MMP-9 activity and thereby the degree of ICH were also tested.

RESULTS:

Adenoviral vector-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor at the higher dose and at 48 hours induced MMP-9 levels 6-fold (n=6, P=0.02) and increased brain tissue hemoglobin (43.4+/-11.5 versus 30.3+/-4.1 mug/mg, n=6, P=0.003) compared with the adenoviral vector control. Immnunostaining was positive for MMP-9 around the cerebral vessels and the hemorrhagic areas. Minocycline and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate administration suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor-induced MMP-9 activity (n=6, P=0.003 and P=0.01, respectively) and the associated increases in hemoglobin levels (n=5-6, P=0.001 and P=0.02, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS:

Vascular endothelial growth factor-induced ICH is associated with increased MMP-9 expression. Suppression of MMP-9 by minocycline or pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate attenuated ICH, suggesting the therapeutic potential of MMP inhibitors in cerebral vascular rupture.

PMID:
17673717
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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