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Opt Lett. 2007 Aug 1;32(15):2212-4.

Increasing the imaging depth of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with a miniature microscope objective.

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  • 1Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.


A miniature objective lens with a tip diameter of 1.3 mm was used for extending the penetration depth of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. Its axial and lateral focal widths were determined to be 11.4 and 0.86 microm, respectively, by two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging of 200 nm beads at a 735 nm excitation wavelength. By inserting the lens tip into a soft gel sample, CARS images of 2 microm polystyrene beads 5 mm deep from the surface were acquired. The miniature objective was applied to CARS imaging of rat spinal cord white matter with a minimal requirement for surgery.

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