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Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2007 Aug;6(4):321-8.

Technical description, phantom accuracy, and clinical feasibility for single-session lung radiosurgery using robotic image-guided real-time respiratory tumor tracking.

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  • 1European Cyberknife Center, Munich Grosshadern, Munich, Germany.


To describe the technological background, the accuracy, and clinical feasibility for single session lung radiosurgery using a real-time robotic system with respiratory tracking. The latest version of image-guided real-time respiratory tracking software (Synchrony, Accuray Incorporated, Sunnyvale, CA) was applied and is described. Accuracy measurements were performed using a newly designed moving phantom model. We treated 15 patients with 19 lung tumors with robotic radiosurgery (CyberKnife, Accuray) using the same treatment parameters for all patients. Ten patients had primary tumors and five had metastatic tumors. All patients underwent computed tomography-guided percutaneous placement of one fiducial directly into the tumor, and were all treated with single session radiosurgery to a dose of 24 Gy. Follow up CT scanning was performed every two months. All patients could be treated with the automated robotic technique. The respiratory tracking error was less than 1 mm and the overall shape of the dose profile was not affected by target motion and/or phase shift between fiducial and optical marker motion. Two patients required a chest tube insertion after fiducial implantation because of pneumothorax. One patient experienced nausea after treatment. No other short-term adverse reactions were found. One patient showed imaging signs of pneumonitis without a clinical correlation. Single-session radiosurgery for lung tumor tracking using the described technology is a stable, safe, and feasible concept for respiratory tracking of tumors during robotic lung radiosurgery in selected patients. Longer follow-up is needed for definitive clinical results.

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