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Pharm Res. 2007 Nov;24(11):2156-67. Epub 2007 Aug 1.

Rapid doxorubicin efflux from the nucleus of drug-resistant cancer cells following extracellular drug clearance.

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  • 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Michigan College of Pharmacy, 428 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Following extracellular drug clearance, we analyzed the rate of doxorubicin efflux from the nucleus of three human leukemic cells (K562, Molt4 and CCRF-CEM) and related it to their differential sensitivity to this drug, after a short drug pulse.

RESULTS:

For many pulse-chase regimes, K562 cell viability was least affected by doxorubicin. In K562 cells, nuclear drug accumulation was greatest, but nuclear drug egress was also greatest. P-glycoprotein over-expression in a doxorubicin-resistant, K562/DOX sub-line did not facilitate doxorubicin efflux from the nucleus. In K562 cells, doxorubicin accumulated in multivesicular bodies (MVBs) through a pH-dependent mechanism. Inhibiting drug sequestration in MVBs did not affect nuclear efflux. The rates of doxorubicin efflux from the nuclei of live and digitonin-permeabilized K562 cells were similar. However, extracting cytoplasmic membranes with Triton X-100 significantly inhibited nuclear drug efflux following extracellular drug clearance.

CONCLUSION:

Our results are consistent with drug efflux from the nucleus being primarily mediated by an ATP-independent, passive diffusion mechanism. The effect of membrane extraction suggests that nonspecific drug absorption to cytoplasmic membranes plays a role in facilitating nuclear efflux in K562 cells, perhaps by lowering the concentration of free doxorubicin from a perinuclear diffusion boundary layer.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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