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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Sep 1;46(1):112-7.

Gender differences in sex risk behaviors among Ukraine injection drug users.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, USA.



To assess gender differences in drug and sex risk behaviors and evaluate predictors of HIV-related sex risk behaviors among heterosexual injection drug users (IDUs) in Ukraine.


Street-recruited IDUs from Kiev, Odessa, and Makeevka/Donesk, Ukraine.


From June 2004 through November 2006, outreach workers recruited 1557 IDUs, including 526 from Kiev, 494 from Odessa, and 537 from Makeevka/Donesk. Participants were administered a standardized computer-assisted interview assessing HIV-related drug and sex risk behaviors, self-efficacy for practicing safe sex, and HIV knowledge.


Overall, 80% of the participants were sexually active in the 30-day period before their interview. They also engaged in high-risk sex behaviors during this brief 30-day window: 53% reported anal or vaginal sex without a condom, 27% had sex with more than 1 partner, 41% had an IDU sex partner, and 37% had an HIV-positive sex partner or a partner whose HIV status they did not know. Overall, women were at higher risk than men and were more likely to have been told they were HIV-positive.


The extremely high HIV prevalence rate in Ukraine and in this cohort, combined with their recent high-risk sex behaviors, forecasts not only a continuance of the epidemic in the region but an escalation.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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