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Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2007 Aug;116(2):129-36.

Stability of executive function deficits into young adult years: a prospective longitudinal follow-up study of grown up males with ADHD.

Author information

  • 1Pediatric Psychopharmacology Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. jbiederman@partners.org

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Although individuals with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly exhibit deficits in executive functions that greatly increase the morbidity of the disorder, all available information on the subject is cross sectional.

METHOD:

Males (n = 85) 9-22 years with ADHD followed over 7 years into young adulthood were assessed on measures of sustained attention/vigilance, planning and organization, response inhibition, set shifting and categorization, selective attention and visual scanning, verbal and visual learning, and memory. A binary definition of executive function deficits (EFDs) was defined based on a subject manifesting at least two abnormal tests 1.5 standard deviations from controls.

RESULTS:

The majority of subjects maintained EFDs over time (kappa: 0.41, P < 0.001; sensitivity: 55%, specificity: 85%, positive predictive value: 69%, and negative predictive value: 75%).

CONCLUSION:

Considering the morbidity of EFDs, these findings stress the importance of their early recognition for prevention and early intervention strategies. EFDs are stable over time.

PMID:
17650275
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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