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Infect Immun. 2007 Oct;75(10):4942-50. Epub 2007 Jul 23.

Cyclic di-GMP stimulates protective innate immunity in bacterial pneumonia.

Author information

  • 1Intragenics Research Institute, Havre de Grace, MD 21078, USA. dkaraolis@intragenics.org

Abstract

Innate immunity is the primary mechanism by which extracellular bacterial pathogens are effectively cleared from the lung. We have previously shown that cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP [c-diguanylate]) is a novel small molecule immunomodulator and immunostimulatory agent that triggers protective host innate immune responses. Using a murine model of bacterial pneumonia, we show that local intranasal (i.n.) or systemic subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of c-di-GMP prior to intratracheal (i.t.) challenge with Klebsiella pneumoniae stimulates protective immunity against infection. Specifically, i.n. or s.c. administration of c-di-GMP 48 and 24 h prior to i.t. K. pneumoniae challenge resulted in significantly increased survival. Pretreatment with c-di-GMP resulted in a 5-fold reduction in bacterial CFU in the lung (P < 0.05) and an impressive >1,000-fold decrease in CFU in the blood (P < 0.01). c-di-GMP administration stimulated a robust innate response to bacterial challenge, characterized by enhanced accumulation of neutrophils and alphabeta T cells, as well as activated NK and alphabeta T lymphocytes, which was associated with earlier and more vigorous expression of chemokines and type I cytokines. Moreover, lung macrophages recovered from Klebsiella-infected mice pretreated with c-di-GMP expressed greater quantities of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide ex vivo than did macrophages isolated from infected mice pretreated with the control, c-GMP. These findings demonstrate that c-di-GMP delivered in either a compartmentalized or systemic fashion stimulates protective innate immunity in the lung and protects mice against bacterial invasion. We propose that the cyclic dinucleotide c-di-GMP may be used clinically as an effective immunomodulator, immune enhancer, and vaccine adjuvant to protect against respiratory infection and pneumonia in humans and animals.

PMID:
17646358
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2044534
Free PMC Article

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