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J Epidemiol. 2007 Jul;17(4):125-32.

Relationship between smoking status and tooth loss: findings from national databases in Japan.

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  • 1Department of Preventive and Public Health Dentistry, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka, Japan.



A causal association between cigarette smoking and periodontal disease has been established. The present study examined the association between smoking and tooth loss using national databases in Japan.


Records of the Survey of Dental Diseases and the National Nutrition Survey in 1999 were linked electronically using common identification. Records of 3,999 subjects aged older than 40 years were analyzed using logistic regression models, controlling for confounding factors, such as age, frequency of tooth brushing, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and intakes of vitamin C and E.


Prevalence of tooth loss in terms of having less than 19 existing teeth was 37.3% overall. Smoking rates differed in males (45.6%) and females (7.8%). The prevalence of tooth loss in nonsmokers, former, and current smokers was 28.5%, 38.6%, and 36.9% in males, and 38.6%, 34.3% and 38.9% in females, respectively. Adjusted means of existing teeth controlling for confounders by smoking status were 21.5, 19.7 and 18.2 in males and 19.0, 19.2 and 16.4 in females, respectively. The association of tooth loss was non-significant in former smokers but significant in current smokers: adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) relative to nonsmokers in males and females were 1.29 (0.92-1.80) and 0.86 (0.46, 1.60) for former smokers and 2.22 (1.61-3.06) and 2.14 (1.45-3.15) for current smokers, respectively. A dose-response relationship between lifetime exposure and tooth loss was seen (P for trend <0.0001).


The findings of this cross-sectional study of a nationwide population of Japanese indicated an association between smoking and tooth loss.

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