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J Thromb Haemost. 2007 Jul;5 Suppl 1:175-82.

Menorrhagia associated with laboratory abnormalities of hemostasis: epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.

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  • 1Mary M. Gooley Hemophilia Treatment Center, and the Rochester General Hospital, Rochester, NY 14621, USA. peter.kouides@viahealth.org


Historically, the pathogenesis of menorrhagia has focused on anatomic and hormonal etiologies. However, in the past decade, numerous epidemiological studies have confirmed an association of von Willebrand factor (VWF) deficiency and menorrhagia with an incidence of VWF deficiency of 13% (95% CI, 11%, 16%). Such patients have a reduced quality of life and incur a high rate of seemingly unnecessary gynecological interventions. In addition, it appears that platelet function abnormalities are c. 3- to 4-fold more common than VWF deficiency in association with menorrhagia. The management of menorrhagia with an underlying disorder of hemostasis involves consideration of the patient's age, childbearing status and preference in terms of several options: hemostatic (oral tranexamic acid, intranasal desmopressin), hormonal (oral contraceptive, levonorgestrel intrauterine system) and surgical (endometrial ablation, hysterectomy). Pending ongoing comparative trials in bleeding disorder-related menorrhagia of intranasal desmopressin (DDAVP), tranexamic acid and further study of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device, specific recommendations cannot be made at present regarding whether one intervention is superior to the other. It should also be noted that the dose and schedule and combination of intranasal DDAVP and tranexamic acid have not been well established and warrant further study. It is imperative to establish algorithms of effective menorrhagia interventions in order to justify widespread hemostasis screening of the menorrhagia patient.

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