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Xenobiotica. 1991 Nov;21(11):1483-92.

Species- and sex-related differences in the plasma clearance and metabolite formation of antipyrine. A comparative study in four animal species: cattle, goat, rat and rabbit.

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  • 1Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, University of Utrecht, The Netherlands.


1. The plasma disposition of antipyrine, and its urinary metabolite pattern, were studied in both sexes of four animal species: rat, dwarf goat, rabbit and cattle. 2. No sex differences in plasma elimination of antipyrine were found in rabbit and goat; however, in rat and cattle the effect of sex was marked. As expected, male rat showed a higher plasma clearance value than female. In contrast bulls showed a significantly lower clearance value than cows. 3. Metabolite patterns varied widely from one species to another. The major urinary metabolite in rabbit and the two ruminant species was 4-hydroxy-antipyrine (OHA), whereas in rat 3-hydroxymethylantipyrine (HMA) was quantitatively the most important metabolite. 4. HMA was excreted in the 24 h urine in larger amounts by male rats than by females. Metabolism of antipyrine to HMA was also sexually different in the dwarf goat, but in this species females were more active than males. The effect of sex on the metabolite pattern in cattle was marked. 5. It is concluded that in ruminants there may be xenobiotic metabolic pathways which are under hormonal control, just as there are in rats and mice. If hormones influence drug metabolism in food-producing animals, residue levels of xenobiotics or their metabolites in food from animal origin may differ with the sex of the animal, or may be altered after treatment with anabolic hormones.

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