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Expert Rev Mol Med. 2007 Jul 11;9(19):1-22.

Norovirus-host interaction: implications for disease control and prevention.

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  • 1Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039, USA.


Noroviruses (NVs) are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis epidemics in both developing and developed countries and affect people of all ages. Three main human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) - the ABO, Lewis and secretor families - are involved in NV recognition and eight strain-specific receptor-binding patterns in two major binding groups have been described. The receptor-binding interface is located at the outermost surface of the P domain of the viral capsid. Each interface contains two major binding sites and each site interacts with a carbohydrate side-chain of the HBGAs via multiple hydrogen bonds. Soluble HBGAs in human milk are able to block binding of NV to HBGA receptors, suggesting a potential decoy receptor for the protection of infants from NV infection. Phylogenetic analysis has revealed limited genetic relatedness among NVs with similar receptor-binding patterns. This review summarises and discusses recent advances and highlights implications for future studies in the control and prevention of NV gastroenteritis.

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