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Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Oct;62(10):1162-9. Epub 2007 Jul 11.

Sodium intake in infancy and blood pressure at 7 years: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

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  • 1Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Whiteladies Road, Bristol, Avon, UK. Marie-Jo.Brion@bristol.ac.uk

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Infancy may be a sensitive period regarding effects of sodium intake on future blood pressure (BP). This has only been demonstrated in one randomized trial of low sodium formulae with follow-up in adolescence in one-third of participants.

OBJECTIVE:

To prospectively assess associations between sodium intake in infancy and BP at 7 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).

SUBJECTS:

A total of 533 children with sodium data at 4 months and 710 children with sodium at 8 months.

RESULTS:

0.4% of participants at 4 months and 73.0% at 8 months exceeded recommended levels for infant sodium intake. After minimal adjustment (child age, sex, energy), sodium intake at 4 months was positively associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) at 7 years (beta=0.54 mm Hg/mmol; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.98 mm Hg; P=0.02). This changed little following adjustment for confounders but attenuated after adjusting for breastfeeding. This association was not mediated by sodium intake at 7 years. Due to high sodium-potassium correlations, effects of sodium independent of potassium could not be estimated with reasonable precision. Sodium intake neither at 8 months nor at 7 years was associated with SBP at 7 years.

CONCLUSION:

The association between sodium intake at 4 months and future SBP requires replication in studies that can control for effects of potassium before we can conclude that early infancy is a sensitive period with respect to effects of sodium on future BP. The majority of infants exceeded recommended levels of sodium intake at 8 months, and interventions to reduce sodium in infants' diets should be considered.

PMID:
17622260
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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