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Hum Mov Sci. 2007 Aug;26(4):657-97. Epub 2007 Jul 2.

Action and perception at the level of synergies.

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  • 1Center for the Ecological Study of Perception and Action, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA.


Meeting the challenge of assembling coherent organizations of very many muscles characterizes a functional level of biological movement systems referred to as the level of muscular-articular links or synergies. The present article examines the issues confronting the forming, regulating, and ordering of synergies and the hypothesized principles, both classical and contemporary, which resolve them. A primary goal of the article is to highlight the abstractness of the concepts and tools required to understand the level's action-perception competence. Coverage is given to symmetry groups, task space, order parameters, metastability, biotensegrity, allometric scaling, and impredicative definitions.

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