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Int Urol Nephrol. 2007;39(4):1177-81. Epub 2007 Jun 30.

Testicular microlithiasis: prevalence and risk of concurrent and interval development of testicular tumor in a referred population.

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  • 1Department of Urology, Ayr Hospital, Dalmellington Road, Ayr, KA6 6DX, UK.



To identify prevalence of testicular microlithiasis on ultrasound in a referred population and risk of concurrent and interval testicular tumor development.


Retrospective review of our radiology database revealed 4363 scrotal ultrasounds were performed over a six-year period. Ultrasound findings were correlated with our hospital pathological database. The association of intratesticular microlithiasis and confirmed testicular cancers were assessed by means of a Fisher exact test.


Testicular microlithiasis was identified in 32 of the 4259 patients (0.75% of screened population). In the same time period 83 testicular tumors were identified on initial scanning (2.00% of screened population). Three patients with tumor had coexisting microlithiasis (9.4% incidence), whilst a further two had interval development of tumor. The follow-up of the microlithiasis patients ranged from 3 to 72 months (mean 33.9 months, median 40 months).


Interval development of testicular tumor is a documented phenomenon. As the incidence in detection of microlithiasis increases secondary to advances in ultrasound technology, follow-up becomes financially prohibitive. We advocate regular self-examination as the primary follow-up of otherwise well patients with testicular microlithiasis.

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