Display Settings:

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Diabetes Care. 2007 Jul;30 Suppl 2:S246-50. doi: 10.2337/dc07-s224.

Gestational diabetes, pregnancy hypertension, and late vascular disease.

Author information

  • Brown Medical School, Providence, Rhode Island, USA. mcarpenter@wihri.org

Erratum in

  • Diabetes Care. 2007 Dec;30(12):3154.

Abstract

The complexity of the several pathogenic pathways that cause hypertension and vascular disease and the prolonged interval that appears to predate clinical morbidity have hindered inquiry into the association between GDM and vascular disorders. As a forme fruste of later type 2 diabetes, GDM-affected gravidas are identified as at risk of diabetes-related atherosclerosis, glomerular disruption, and pathogenic retinal angio-genesis. That GDM is evidence for underlying chronic conditions such as dysregulation of innate immune response that, independent of the diabetic state, produces vascular disease is difficult state, produces vascular disease is difficult to assert with the present published literature. Cross-sectional studies of patients with established gestational hypertension or preeclampsia are ambiguous as to the possible pathogenic effect of insulin resistance. Cohort studies initiated in early and mid-pregnancy show evidence that both gestational hypertension and preeclampsia may be more prevalent in gravidas with greater insulin resistance. The association of gestational glucose intolerance with gestational hypertension appears to be independent of obesity and ambient glycemia but explained in part by insulin resistance. Late pregnancy preeclampsia is associated with elevated mid-pregnancy BMI, blood pressure, fasting glucose and insulin, urate, and C-reactive protein, suggestive of metabolic and immune dysregulation. GDM appears to be associated with overexpressed innate immune response, which, in turn, is associated with vascular dysfunction and vascular disease. Among women with GDM, markers of insulin resistance do not appear to correlate with hypertension in short-term cohort studies. However, when non-GDM subjects are compared with subjects with GDM, postpregnancy studies do show an associated with vascular dysfunction and vascular disease. Among women with GDM, markers of insulin resistance do not appear to correlate with hypertension in short-term cohort studies. However, when non-GDM subjects are compared with subjects with GDM, postpregnancy studies do show an association of insulin resistance with both inflammatory dysregulation and vascular dysfunction. Cohort studies that have used population-based pregnancy databases consistently identify a clinically significant association of both gestational hypertension and preeclampsia with later hypertensive disorders. Associations with coronary artery disease or stroke are less consistent, requiring further investigation. Preventing the evolution of diabetes and lipid and immune dysregulation of the metabolic syndrome has become a silent public health issue because of the epidemic of childhood and early adulthood obesity and the opportunity at hand to treat insulin resistance by behavioral and pharmacological interventions. However, limited available literature highlights the need for long-term cohort studies of women with well-characterized metabolic and vascular profiles during pregnancy and decades later. Our present knowledge suggests that screening for GDM provides an opportunity of pregnancy outcome improvement. Limited studies of diabetes prevention in at-risk patient groups suggest that we may have the opportunity to reduce the risk of later diabetes. Additional investigation is required to determine if interventions that prevent or postpone diabetes also delay the onset of vascular disease.

PMID:
17596480
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk