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Biochemistry. 2007 Jul 24;46(29):8680-8. Epub 2007 Jun 27.

Insight into the bind-lock mechanism of the yeast mitochondrial ATP synthase inhibitory peptide.

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  • 1Institut de Biologie et de Technologie de Saclay and CNRS-URA 2096, CEA Saclay, F 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.


The mechanism of yeast mitochondrial F1-ATPase inhibition by its regulatory peptide IF1 was investigated with the noncatalytic sites frozen by pyrophosphate pretreatment that mimics filling by ATP. This allowed for confirmation of the mismatch between catalytic site occupancy and IF1 binding rate without the kinetic restriction due to slow ATP binding to the noncatalytic sites. These data strengthen the previously proposed two-step mechanism, where IF1 loose binding is determined by the catalytic state and IF1 locking is turnover-dependent and competes with IF1 release (Corvest, V., Sigalat, C., Venard, R., Falson, P., Mueller, D. M., and Haraux, F. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 9927-9936). They also demonstrate that noncatalytic sites, which slightly modulate IF1 access to the enzyme, play a minor role in its binding. It is also shown that loose binding of IF1 to MgADP-loaded F1-ATPase is very slow and that IF1 binding to ATP-hydrolyzing F1-ATPase decreases nucleotide binding severely in the micromolar range and moderately in the submillimolar range. Taken together, these observations suggest an outline of the total inhibition process. During the first catalytic cycle, IF1 loosely binds to a catalytic site with newly bound ATP and is locked when ATP is hydrolyzed at a second site. During the second cycle, blocking of ATP hydrolysis by IF1 inhibits ATP from becoming entrapped on the third site and, at high ATP concentrations, also inhibits ADP release from the second site. This model also provides a clue for understanding why IF1 does not bind ATP synthase during ATP synthesis.

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