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Nat Protoc. 2007;2(7):1614-21.

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maize.

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  • 1Plant Innovation Center, Japan Tobacco Inc., 700 Higashibara, Iwata, Shizuoka, Japan.


Maize may be transformed very efficiently using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated methods. The most critical factor in the transformation protocol is the co-cultivation of healthy immature embryos of the correct developmental stage with A. tumefaciens; the embryos should be collected only from vigorous plants grown in well-conditioned glasshouses. With the protocol described here, approximately 50% of immature embryos from the inbred line A188 and 15% from inbred lines A634, H99 and W117 will produce transformants. About half of the transformed plants are expected to carry one or two copies of the transgenes, which are inherited by the progeny in a mendelian fashion. More than 90% of transformants are expected to be normal in morphology. The protocol takes about 3 months from the start of co-cultivation to the planting of transformants into pots.

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