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Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 Nov;31(11):1688-95. Epub 2007 Jun 19.

Effects of food form on appetite and energy intake in lean and obese young adults.

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  • 1Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2059, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the independent effect of food form on appetite and energy intake in lean and obese adults using high carbohydrate, fat or protein food stimuli.

DESIGN:

Crossover dietary challenge with matched beverage and solid food forms: high carbohydrate (watermelon and watermelon juice); high protein (cheese and milk); high fat (coconut meat and coconut milk). A total of 120 lean (18-23 kg/m(2); N=60) and obese (30-35 kg/m(2); N=60) adults (18-50 years old) with stable body weight. Forty different participants (N=20 lean and 20 obese) were tested with each of the food systems.

MEASUREMENTS:

Appetitive sensations, food palatability and dietary intake.

RESULTS:

Regardless of the predominant energy source, the beverage food form elicited a weaker compensatory dietary response than the matched solid food form. Thus, total daily energy intake was significantly higher by 12.4, 19 and 15% on days the beverage forms of the high-carbohydrate, -fat and -protein foods were ingested, respectively. This was due more to a weak effect on satiety than satiation. The obese participants had higher energy intake at the lunch, including the beverage high-protein load, but overall differences between lean and obese participants were small and not systematic.

CONCLUSION:

Food rheology exerts an independent effect on energy intake. Dietary compensation for beverages is weaker than for solid food forms of comparable nutrient content. Thus, they pose a greater risk for promoting positive energy balance.

PMID:
17579632
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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