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Public Health. 2007 Dec;121(12):942-9. Epub 2007 Jun 18.

Which mothers smoke before, during and after pregnancy?

Author information

  • 1School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia. R.Giglia@exchange.curtin.edu.au

Erratum in

  • Public Health. 2008 Mar;122(3):331. Zhan, Y [corrected to Zhao, Y].



To investigate the sociodemographic factors associated with cigarette smoking in women before, during and after pregnancy.


A 12-month longitudinal study.


All eligible mothers at two public maternity hospitals in Perth, Australia were asked to participate in a study of infant feeding. While in hospital, participating mothers completed a self-administered baseline questionnaire. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted at 4, 10, 16, 22, 32, 40 and 52 weeks. Data collected included sociodemographic, biomedical, hospital-related and psychosocial factors associated with the initiation and duration of breastfeeding.


A total of 587 (55%) mothers participated in the study. Thirty-nine percent of mothers reported smoking pre-pregnancy. Mothers who smoked were more likely to have a partner who smoked and to have consumed alcohol prior to pregnancy, and less likely to have attended antenatal classes. They were also less likely to have known how they were going to feed their baby before conception and likely to be more inclined to consider stopping breastfeeding before four months postpartum.


Having a partner (father of the newborn infant) who smoked and maternal alcohol consumption prenatally were factors associated with pre-pregnancy smoking. In addition, if a woman decided how she would feed her infant before the pregnancy occurred and intended to breastfeed for longer than four months she was less likely to smoke in the prenatal period. Having a father (of the newborn infant) who smoked during pregnancy continued to be a factor significantly associated with maternal smoking in the antenatal and postnatal period. Not attending antenatal classes and not intending to breastfeed for longer than four months were also factors associated with maternal smoking. At ten weeks postpartum being of Caucasian origin and having a low Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score were factors significantly associated with smoking postnatally.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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