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Cancer Res. 2007 Jun 15;67(12):5814-20.

Targeting mutant (V600E) B-Raf in melanoma interrupts immunoediting of leukocyte functions and melanoma extravasation.

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  • 1Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.


Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) facilitate melanoma cell extravasation under dynamic flow conditions by the binding of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on melanoma cells to beta2 integrins on PMNs, which is mediated by endogenously produced chemokine interleukin 8 (IL-8) from the tumor microenvironment. However, little is known about the role of B-Raf, the most mutated gene in malignant melanomas, in this process. In this study, we investigated the functional importance of B-Raf in melanoma extravasation by using short interfering RNA to reduce expression/activity of mutant (V600E)B-Raf in melanoma. Results indicated that knockdown of mutant (V600E)B-Raf inhibited melanoma cell extravasation in vitro and subsequent lung metastasis development in vivo. Mechanistic studies showed that inhibition of (V600E)B-Raf significantly reduced the constitutive secretion of IL-8 from melanoma cells as well as the capacity of endogenous IL-8 production from the melanoma-PMN microenvironment. Furthermore, a reduction in ICAM-1 expression on melanoma cells was detected following mutant (V600E)B-Raf knockdown. Together, these results suggest that targeting mutant (V600E)B-Raf reduces melanoma cell extravasation by decreasing IL-8 production and interrupting ICAM-1-beta2 integrin binding of melanoma cells to the endothelium mediated by PMNs in the microcirculation, which provides a rationale and mechanistic basis for targeting mutant (V600E)B-Raf to inhibit melanoma extravasation and subsequent metastasis development.

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