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Opt Lett. 2007 Jun 15;32(12):1680-2.

Second-harmonic-generation microscope using eight-segment polarization-mode converter to observe three-dimensional molecular orientation.

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  • 1Division of Bioengineering, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Japan.

Erratum in

  • Opt Lett. 2007 Aug 15;32(16):2465. Ryosuke, Kanamaru [corrected to Kanamaru, Ryosuke].


We developed a compact polarization-mode converter for microscopy to control three-dimensional polarization at the focus. The converter consisted of two homogeneously aligned liquid-crystal spatial light modulators with eight independently controllable electrodes (segments), and a quarter-waveplate. The converter converted a linearly polarized beam to three polarization modes: two orthogonal linear polarizations and a pseudo-radial polarization. We applied the converter to second-harmonic-generation microscopy and demonstrated the detection of three-dimensional molecular orientation.

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