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Compr Psychiatry. 2007 Jul-Aug;48(4):380-7. Epub 2007 Mar 29.

Reliability and validity of the Italian version of the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised in an outpatient sample.

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  • 1School of Psychology, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, 20127 Milan, Italy. fossati.andrea@hsr.it



The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R) in an outpatient sample.


The TCI-R was administered to 404 consecutively admitted subjects. The TCI-R scale 1-month test-retest reliability and TCI-R/TCI convergent validity were assessed in 2 independent subsamples.


The TCI-R scales showed adequate Cronbach alpha values and acceptable 1-month test-retest reliability coefficients. Although many TCI-R facets showed factorial complexity, factor analysis results were consistent with the 7-factor structure of the TCI-R scales. The predictive validity of TCI-R profiles for personality disorder diagnoses was confirmed, with different combinations of temperament dimensions being associated with specific personality disorders.


The TCI-R was a reliable and valid instrument for assessing temperament and character features, at least among Italian outpatients. The TCI-R psychometric properties support its clinical usefulness in the assessing of personality psychopathology.

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