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Autoimmun Rev. 2007 Jun;6(6):379-86. Epub 2007 Jan 31.

Cardiac manifestations in antiphospholipid syndrome.

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  • 1Third Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Unit, University Medical School of Debrecen, Debrecen, H-4004, Hungary.

Abstract

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease associated with arterial and venous thrombotic events and recurrent fetal loss. Cardiac manifestations in APS primarily include accelerated atherosclerosis leading to cardiovascular disease. There is increased cardiovascular mortality in APS. Cardiovascular risk is even higher in secondary APS in lupus patients. Several traditional and disease-related, autoimmune-inflammatory risk factors are involved in APS-associated atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA), lupus anticoagulant, anti-oxLDL and other antibodies have been implicated in vascular events underlying APS. The primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerosis and CAD in these diseases includes drug treatment, such as the use of statins and aspirin, as well as lifestyle modifications. Apart from atherosclerosis and CVD, other cardiac manifestations may also be present in these patients. Among these conditions, valvular disease including thickening and vegetations is the most common. APA are involved in the pathogenesis of Libman-Sacks endocarditis usually associated with SLE. In addition, ventricular dysfunction, intracardiac thrombi and myxomas, pulmonary hypertension may also exist in APS patients. Early diagnosis of APS, thorough examination of the heart, control of traditional risk factors by lifestyle modifications and pharmacotherapy, probably anti-inflammatory treatment, and close follow-up of APS patients may help to minimize cardiovascular risk in these individuals.

PMID:
17537384
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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