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FEBS Lett. 2007 Jun 12;581(14):2587-92. Epub 2007 May 21.

Equine lysozyme: the molecular basis of folding, self-assembly and innate amyloid toxicity.

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  • 1Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.


Calcium-binding equine lysozyme (EL) combines the structural and folding properties of c-type lysozymes and alpha-lactalbumins, connecting these two most studied subfamilies. The structural insight into its native and partially folded states is particularly illuminating in revealing the general principles of protein folding, amyloid formation and its inhibition. Among lysozymes EL forms one of the most stable molten globules and shows the most uncooperative refolding kinetics. Its partially-folded states serve as precursors for calcium-dependent self-assembly into ring-shaped and linear amyloids. The innate amyloid cytotoxicity of the ubiquitous lysozyme highlights the universality of this phenomenon and necessitates stringent measures for its prevention.

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