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Piezoelectric properties in (K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-BaTiO3 lead-free ceramics.

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  • 1Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.


Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with compositions around the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) x(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-y(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-zBaTiO3 [x + y + z = 1; y:z = 2:1] were synthesized using conventional, solid-state processing. Dielectric maximum temperatures of 280 degrees C and 262 degrees C were found for tetragonal 0.79(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.14(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.07BaTiO3 (BNBK79) and MPB composition 0.88(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.08(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.04BaTiO3 (BNBK88), with depolarization temperatures of 224 degrees C and 162 degrees C, respectively. Piezoelectric coefficients d33 were found to be 135 pC/N and 170 pC/N for BNBK79 and BNBK88, and the piezoelectric d31 was determined to be -37 pC/N and -51 pC/N, demonstrating strong anisotropy. Coercive field values were found to be 37 kV/cm and 29 kV/cm for BNBK79 and BNBK88, respectively. The remanent polarization of BNBK88 (approximately 40 microC/cm2) was larger than that of BNBK79 (approximately 29 microC/cm2). The piezoelectric, electromechanical, and high-field strain behaviors also were studied as a function of temperature and discussed.

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