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Hum Immunol. 2007 Jun;68(6):469-77. Epub 2007 Mar 26.

Novel role for the N-terminus domain of the a2 isoform of vacuolar ATPase in interleukin-1beta production.

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  • 1Clinical Immunology Laboratory, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL, USA.


Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is a mediator cytokine that is released by macrophages and epithelial cells in pregnancy and tumorigenesis before antigen recognition. a2V-ATPase is a protein expressed during pregnancy and tumorigenesis and has a novel role in immune regulation. It is expressed as a 70 kDa molecule in intracellular vesicles. Upon cell stimulation it migrates to the surface followed by the cleavage of a 20 kDa portion (a2 N-terminus domain, a2NTD). This study aimed to determine whether a2NTD could induce IL-1beta production in immune cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC) were stimulated with a2NTD and analyzed for cytokine gene expression by gene arrays. Supernatants were analyzed for IL-1beta by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cells were analyzed for intracellular expression of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha by flow cytometry. When PBMC were cultured with a2NTD, there was a 2.5-fold increase in IL1A and IL1B gene expression and no induction of TNF gene expression. There was a 72-fold increase in IL-1beta in supernatants of PBMC cultured with a2NTD. Finally, there was a 204-fold increase in intracellular expression of IL-1beta in monocytes incubated with a2NTD. These results indicate a regulatory role for a2NTD in IL-1 cytokine production and suggest a unique role for this molecule in inflammation.

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