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Schizophr Bull. 2008 Jan;34(1):93-108. Epub 2007 May 15.

Toward a model of memory enhancement in schizophrenia: glucose administration and hippocampal function.

Author information

  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. wstone@bidmc.harvard.edu

Abstract

Recognition of the need to treat cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is compelling and well established, with empirical findings and conceptual arguments related to cognitive enhancement appearing regularly in the literature. Cognitive enhancement itself, however, remains at an early stage. Biological approaches have centered on the development of antipsychotic medications that also improve cognition, but the results have so far remained modest. As a way to facilitate the development of cognitive enhancers in schizophrenia, this article focuses on adjunctive pharmacological approaches to antipsychotic medications and highlights the need for systematic explorations of relevant brain mechanisms. While numerous conceptual criteria might be employed to guide the search, we will focus on 4 points that are especially likely to be useful and which have not yet been considered together. First, the discussion will focus on deficits in a particular cognitive domain, verbal declarative memory. Second, we will review the current status of preclinical and clinical efforts to improve declarative memory using antipsychotic medications, which is the main, existing mode of treatment. Third, we will examine an example of an adjunctive intervention-glucose administration-that improves memory in animals and humans, modulates function in brain regions related to verbal declarative memory, and is highly amenable to translational research. Finally, a heuristic model will be outlined to explore how the intervention maps on to the underlying neurobiology of schizophrenia. More generally, the discussion underlines the promise of cognitive improvement in schizophrenia and the need to approach the issue in a programmatic manner.

PMID:
17504777
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2632374
Free PMC Article

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