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AIDS. 2007 May 31;21(9):1165-74.

Antiretroviral drug resistance, HIV-1 tropism, and HIV-1 subtype among men who have sex with men with recent HIV-1 infection.

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  • 1Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 720 Rutland Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.



Antiretroviral drug treatment may be complicated in individuals infected with antiretroviral drug-resistant or non-subtype B HIV-1 strains. HIV-1 tropism may also affect disease progression. We analyzed antiretroviral drug resistance, HIV-1 subtype, and HIV-1 tropism among 195 men who have sex with men from six major cities in the United States, using samples collected within 6 months of HIV-1 seroconversion (1999-2003).


HIV-1 genotyping was performed using the ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System. HIV-1 tropism was determined using a commercial assay. HIV-1 subtyping was performed by phylogenetic analysis of pol region sequences.


Thirty-one (15.9%) of the men had evidence of antiretroviral drug resistance. Seven (3.6%) men had multi-class resistance, including three (1.5%) with resistance to all three antiretroviral drug classes. We found no statistically significant association of antiretroviral drug resistance with demographic factors, sexual practices, self-reported sexually transmitted infections, use of recreational drugs, or use of antiretroviral drug post-exposure prophylaxis. All samples were HIV-1 subtype B. Four men had CXCR4-using HIV-1 strains. One man with a CXCR4-using strain also had antiretroviral drug resistance.


Antiretroviral drug resistance is relatively common among recently infected men who have sex with men in the United States. CXCR4-using strains were detected in a small number of these infections, which were all subtype B HIV-1.

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