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J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007 Jun;18(6):1889-98. Epub 2007 May 9.

Renoprotection of Optimal Antiproteinuric Doses (ROAD) Study: a randomized controlled study of benazepril and losartan in chronic renal insufficiency.

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  • 1Renal Division, Nanfang Hospital, 1838 North Guangzhou Avenue, Guangzhou 510515, People's Republic of China.


The Renoprotection of Optimal Antiproteinuric Doses (ROAD) study was performed to determine whether titration of benazepril or losartan to optimal antiproteinuric doses would safely improve the renal outcome in chronic renal insufficiency. A total of 360 patients who did not have diabetes and had proteinuria and chronic renal insufficiency were randomly assigned to four groups. Patients received open-label treatment with a conventional dosage of benazepril (10 mg/d), individual uptitration of benazepril (median 20 mg/d; range 10 to 40), a conventional dosage of losartan (50 mg/d), or individual uptitration of losartan (median 100 mg/d; range 50 to 200). Uptitration was performed to optimal antiproteinuric and tolerated dosages, and then these dosages were maintained. Median follow-up was 3.7 yr. The primary end point was time to the composite of a doubling of the serum creatinine, ESRD, or death. Secondary end points included changes in the level of proteinuria and the rate of progression of renal disease. Compared with the conventional dosages, optimal antiproteinuric dosages of benazepril and losartan that were achieved through uptitration were associated with a 51 and 53% reduction in the risk for the primary end point (P = 0.028 and 0.022, respectively). Optimal antiproteinuric dosages of benazepril and losartan, at comparable BP control, achieved a greater reduction in both proteinuria and the rate of decline in renal function compared with their conventional dosages. There was no significant difference for the overall incidence of major adverse events between groups that were given conventional and optimal dosages in both arms. It is concluded that uptitration of benazepril or losartan against proteinuria conferred further benefit on renal outcome in patients who did not have diabetes and had proteinuria and renal insufficiency.

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